The Vietnamese Great Victory in the Spring of 1975 successfully ended the 21-year journey of the resistance war against the US to save the country (1954 - 1975). At the same time it gloriously ended the 30-year process of the war for independence and defense of the Fatherland since the 1945 August Revolution, opening a new era for the Vietnam's history.
Tanks of the Liberation Army entered the Independence Palace in the afternoon of April 30th, 1975, marking the complete victory of the historic Ho Chi Minh Campaign and the culmination of the Spring 1975 General Offensive Campaign. It gloriously ended the resistance war against the US for more than two decades (1954 - 1975), completely liberating the South and reunifying the country.
Tanks of the Liberation Army entering the Independence Palace
In 1954, the French colonialists were defeated by the Vietnamese Army at Dien Bien Phu and forced to sign the Geneva Agreement (July 1954) and withdraw from Indochina. However, right after that, implementing the policy of "filling the void", the Imperial US jumped in to wage a war of aggression, plotting to turn the South of Vietnam into a new colony - a military base serving their counter-revolutionary global strategy. In order to carry out the scheme, the US set up a Government and Army of lackeys, tried to sabotage the Geneva Agreement, and suppressed the revolutionary movement in Southern Vietnam.
Within only 4 years (1954 - 1958), the whole South lost 9/10 of its cadres and Party members; nearly 90,000 patriotic compatriots were arrested and imprisoned; nearly 200,000 were tortured and killed. Under the enemy's plots and acts of aggression, the country of Vietnam were temporarily divided into two regions with two opposing socio-political regimes: the North was completely liberated, the South was still under the domination of Imperialism and their lackeys.
Unlike the nine-year resistance war against French Colonialism, the enemy of Vietnamese people in this resistance war was the US Imperialists. They were leading capitalism in the world, with very powerful economic and military potentials. To confront and defeat that enemy, it requires the Vietnamese people to have great strength - the strength of revolutionary heroism and human intelligence, in other words, the power of aspiration for peace and country unification, focusing primarily on the orientation of resistance.
On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of the domestic situation, the relevant international and regional context, the Resolution of the 15th Party Central Committee Conference (Term II) in early 1959 and the Third National Party Congress in September 1960 outlined the line of resistance war against the US, namely strengthening the unity of the whole people; resolutely fighting to maintain peace; advancing simultaneously implementing the Socialist revolution in the North and the people's Democratic national revolution in the South; implementing the unification of the country on the basis of independence, democracy, and practicality to make contribution to strengthening the Socialism in the world; protecting peace in Southeast Asia and the world.
The 15th Party Central Committee Conference (Term II) in early 1959
In 1965, in order to save the Saigon regime, the US massively sent expeditionary troops, troops of some allied countries, various weapons, equipment and modern war means to directly participate in the war in the South; at the same time launched a war of sabotage by air and navy to North Vietnam.
As for that situation, the 12th Conference of the Party Central Committee (Term III) once again affirmed that the task of fighting the US and saving the country is a sacred task of the whole nation and of people in both the South and the North. Based on that, the determination was made: mobilizing the whole country, resolutely defeating the war of aggression by the US imperialists in any situation to protect the North, liberate the South, and complete the people’s national revolution throughout the country, towards the implementing of peace and national reunification.
The resistance line set forth by the Party has met the earnest aspirations of the people in the country, truly becoming a banner leading the entire Party, army and people to unite and promote synergy for the lofty revolutionary ideal set by history. The strength of the struggle was thus richly expressed, multiplied and turned into practical actions through many exciting patriotic emulation movements throughout the country, from the rear to the front lines.
Typically, the movements "Each person works double for the blood South", "No pound of rice is lacked, no one is lacked in the army", young people’s “Ready to join the army, fight and self-sacrifice", women’s “Brave to let husband and sons go to the battlefield, brave to fight if necessary" in the North; the movements of "Clinging to the ground, keeping the village", "No inch do we leave”, "Kill the enemy to gain merit", "Find the US soldiers to fight, find the puppets to kill" in the South. On the North - South strategic support route there were "Across Truong Son saving the country", "No regrets to destroy houses for vehicles to go", etc. All aim for independence, peace and unification.
An American historian has commented that: History must evaluate them (Vietnamese people - the South as well as the North) the highest in terms of the tenacious and brave fighting strength of people. Former US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara admitted that the US lost the battle because it underestimated the power of Vietnamese nationalism to push them to fight for lofty values and goals.
With that strength, after nearly 20 years of continuous heroic and tenacious fighting, the Vietnamese army and people, in turn, gradually defeated the enemy's war strategies: “Unilateral war”, "Accusing Communists, Exterminating Communists" (1954 - 1960), "Special War" (1961 - 1965), "Local War" (1965 - 1968), "Vietnamization of war" (1969 - 1973), forcing the US to sign the Paris Agreement (1973) on ending the war, restoring peace in Vietnam, withdrawing all expeditionary troops back to their country. This is a fundamental victory, opening a new turning point for the cause of resistance.
Ms. Nguyen Thi Binh, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, signed the Paris Agreement 1973
With the restive and belligerent nature, despite withdrawing the expeditionary troops back to the country, the US imperialists set up a disguised military command and continued to aid the Government and the Saigon army to try to sabotage the Agreement of peace, which has just been signed, in order to prolong the war of aggression.
While Vietnam strictly implemented the Paris Agreement, the enemy tried to blatantly and systematically sabotage it. Vietnamese people were forced to continue struggling to maintain the revolutionary achievements, in order to come to a complete victory. The 21st Party Central Committee Conference (Term III) on July 7, 1973 affirmed that in any situation, the path to victory for the Vietnamese revolution is still the path of violence, so Vietnam must firmly grasp the strategic thinking to win all the way.
By the end of 1974 and the beginning of 1975, the war situation had a rapid change in the direction that was more and more favorable to the revolution. Responding to the urgent requirements of the revolution, the Party held a meeting of the Politburo Conference (September 30 - October 7, 1974) and an expanded Politburo Conference (December 18, 1974 - January 8, 1975), officially setting the determination: mobilizing the greatest efforts of the entire Party, army and people in both regions, stepping up military and political struggles, combining with diplomatic struggles to make rapid changes in the comparison of forces on the Southern battlefield in our favor; conducting very expeditiously and completing all the preparations to create conditions for the ripening of revolution, launching a general offensive campaign to take power back to the people and liberate the South.
Implementing the determination set forth by the Politburo, the whole nation "deployed" in the historic Spring of 1975. Never before had the aspiration for peace and unification of our army and people come to such a climax like this time. Only in the first three months of 1975, the North rear had put all their efforts into sending nearly 120,000 cadres and soldiers into the Southern battlefield; providing 230 thousand tons of materials of all kinds, ensuring 81% of weapons, 60% of petrol, 65% of medicines, 85% of trucks, etc.
The aid from the North to the South during this period not only created an overwhelming strength in position and strength compared to the enemy, well served the requirements of the General Offensive Campaign, but also met the requirements of building the liberated zone in all aspects: economy, defense, culture, education, health, to prepare for the takeover of the liberated area when the war ends.
With great support from the North, throughout the Southern battlefield, the Vietnamese army and people tried their best to prepare all sides for the final decisive battle. Never before have the movements of political, military, and diplomatic struggles taken place as vibrantly as this time, pushing the Saigon Government and army deeper into a difficult situation and completely isolating them from the rest of the world. Fighting power from more than 20 years has been accumulated for this historic moment.
The North made every effort to send cadres, soldiers and materials to support the Southern battlefield
After a period of preparation in all aspects to create favorable context and force, on March 4th, 1975, the General Offensive and uprising campaign of Vietnamese army and people began, taking place with three major strategic attacks: the Central Highlands Campaign (from March 4th to April 3rd, 1975), the offensive to liberate Hue - Da Nang (from March 21 to March 29, 1975) and the Ho Chi Minh Campaign (from April 26 to April 30, 1975).
In the afternoon of April 30, 1975 Vietnamese troops entered the Independence Palace and captured the entire Cabinet of the enemy's Central Government. Ho Chi Minh's campaign completely won, successfully ending the resistance war against the US to save the country and the whole journey of 30 years of long and arduous struggle (1945 - 1975). This is one of the most typical and glorious feats in the development of Vietnam.
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